Resources are organized in chronological order

Link | McNamara and Counterforce “No Cities” Doctrine, 1962

Link |  Gray (1971) ‘What RAND Hath Wrought,’ Foreign Policy, No.4 (Autumn 1971), 111-129

Link |  Tsipis (1975) ‘Physics and Calculus of Countercity and Counterforce Nuclear Attacks,’ Science, Vol.187, No.4175 (Feb 1975), 393-397

Link |  Ball (1977) ‘The Counterforce Potential of American SLBM Systems,’ Journal of Peace Research, Vol.14, No.1 (1977), 23-40

Link |  Congress of the United States, Congressional Budget Office (1978) ‘Counterforce Issues for the US Strategic Nuclear Forces: background paper’

Link | Trofimenko (1981) ‘Counterforce: illusion of a Panacea,’ International Security, Vol.5, No.4 (Spring 1981), 28-48

Link |  Lutz (1983) “A Counterforce/Countervalue Scenario: or how much destructive capability is enough?’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol.20, No.1 (Apr 1983), 17-26

Link |  Lackey (1987) ‘The Moral Irrelevance of the Counterforce-Countervalue Distinction,’ The Monist, Vol.70, No.3 (July 1987), 255-275

Link |  Wagner (1991) ‘Nuclear Deterrence, Counterforce Strategies and the Incentive to Strike First,’ The American Political Science Review, Vol.85, No.3 (Sep 1991), 727-749

Link |  Glaser & Fetter (2005) ‘Counterforce Revisited: assessing the Nuclear Posture Review’s new missions,’ International Security, Vol.30, No.2 (Fall 2005), 84-126

Link |  Krepon (2013) ‘Saving Cities,’ online at

Link | Szalai (2013) ‘The Balance of Terror Revisited: Historicizing the Logic of Deterrence in the Counterforce Debate,’ ECPR Joint Session Workshop